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In Memoriam - Missionaries, Nurses and Red Cross

Photo of headstone for victims from the Elim Mission massacre by ZANLA in Vumba in Zimbabwe formerly Rhodesia on June 23rd 1978

A record is presented of missionaries who were killed during attacks on the Church and on the International Red Cross:

Contains graphic content

During 19 months of the Rhodesian Bush War, at least 39 missionaries and their families were brutally killed together with three Red Cross staff. Another 16 were butchered ten years later in Zimbabwe.
One third of all missionary murders were committed in one massacre, which unfolded on 23rd June 1978 in the picturesque Vumba mountains at the height of the Rhodesian conflict and shocked the world with its sheer brutality.
Nine British missionaries and their four children were hacked to death by guerrilla fighters and then dumped on a cricket pitch outside their secondary school for black children. Several of the women were raped, while others were found with axes buried in their skulls. All had been battered or stabbed repeatedly in the face. Among the dead was a three-week-old baby and three other children.
A record of Elim Mission from 1919 to 1989 around the world was written by Peter Smith in 2006.  He states that in the early 1980s, there were rumours that a number of those involved in the massacre had had remarkable conversions to Christianity and the former head of the Vumba mission, Peter Griffiths, was instructed to investigate the claims. He met the platoon commander who had led the group and proceeded to give him his reasons for carrying out the atrocities.
Stephen Griffiths, the 52 year old medical doctor and father of two is the son of Peter Griffiths. During Stephen Griffiths' enquiry, he unearthed a secret diplomatic cable which includes a report by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, a unit in the US state department, which states that a source close to Mr Mugabe had said “a ZANLA field commander had carried out the massacre on his own initiative and ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) was considering how best to take disciplinary action”.
In his book 'The Axe and the Tree', Stephen Griffiths said the cable from Cyrus Vance, US secretary of state, to United Nations ambassador Andrew Young backed up his father’s account of a conversation with Patrick Laver, a British Foreign Office official who claimed Mr Mugabe “unofficially” apologised for the killings.
This led Stephen Griffiths to write a book. In a review by ‘The Sunday Telegraph’ on 21st May 2017 he has claimed that the British Callaghan government turned a blind eye to compelling evidence that Robert Mugabe may have been responsible for the slaughter of British missionaries in Rhodesia because it was reluctant to disrupt peace talks.
Stephen Griffiths claims the cable, obtained under the US Freedom of Information Act, supports suspicions his father harboured about US and British officials knowing more about Mr Mugabe’s guerrilla units than they let on. Stephen Griffiths said his father, who survived the massacre as he was on leave in the UK at the time, had a meeting with Patrick Laver, the Foreign Office’s Rhodesia desk head, in 1979.
Coffins at funeral for Elim Mission masacre victims in Rhodesia 1978“At this second meeting, Laver told my father that Robert Mugabe had ‘unofficially’ apologised for the Elim massacre, acknowledging that it was men owing him allegiance who had carried it out, and that the platoon commander responsible had refused to return for discipline,” he wrote.
The ZANLA guerrilla with the nom de guerre 'Garikai' confessed to the atrocity and Stephen wrote that he met many times with his father and begged for his forgiveness. There is no suggestion that Mr Mugabe, who did not respond to The Sunday Telegraph’s request for comment, personally ordered the attack.
The book claims Mr Callaghan’s Labour government chose not to investigate further as it feared disrupting the Anglo-American peace plan which was at a delicate stage. The Labour government believed if Mr Mugabe was excluded from the talks because of the behaviour of his guerrillas, peace talks sponsored by Lord Owen would fail, according to Mr Griffiths.
Labour lost the 1979 election and Margaret Thatcher won, replacing Lord Owen with Lord Carrington. After a meeting of Commonwealth leaders in Lusaka in August 1979, Britain invited the Rhodesian government and the leaders of the Patriotic Front to peace talks at Lancaster House.
Mr Griffiths inspected records of the inquest which ruled they were killed by “members of a terrorist gang belonging to ZNLA forces.” Witnesses told the inquest the killers identified themselves as Mr Mugabe’s troops, while a diary of a dead Patriotic Front guerrilla which described the killings was presented as evidence.
The Labour politician faced criticism from British and Rhodesian MPs at the time, who accused him of ignoring evidence against Mr Mugabe in order to smooth over the negotiations.
"Seeking the truth through an inquiry after the massacre was never seriously pursued by the British authorities".
The cover-up of the truth by the British allowed for misinformation to proliferate in the media - then and now. An example of the writing from the Church in 1978:
“Mugabe, however, denied responsibility and blamed the Rhodesian government instead. He said that his “freedom fighters” were in touch with witnesses to the raid who recognized the murderers as members of the Rhodesian security forces. The Army unit known as the Selous Scouts, he alleged, was the group responsible for the Vumba killings.
“Similar charges were made last year in One World, a magazine published in Geneva by the World Council of Churches. The WCC periodical said that the secret commando unit at times dressed and equipped its forces like guerrillas in an attempt to discredit them in the eyes of the world. The unit’s attacks are concentrated on defenceless civilians in order to make it appear that the anti-government forces are completely heartless or uninterested in the kind of welfare work done by the victims, according to Army deserters quoted by the magazine. ZANU has been a recipient of WCC anti-racism grants.”


Missionaries and their families that were killed during the Bush War:

Mashawasha Purchase Area, Fort Victoria, November 1976.

Father George Jeorger (42) from Switzerland, belonged to the Roman Catholic Order of
Bethlehem, and worked at Bondolfi Mission in the Fort Victoria area. On November 25, 1976, he left his mission and drove to Mashati Township in the Mshawasha Purchase Area. Here - worried about the risk from landmines laid by guerrillas - he set off on a bicycle to visit villages and smaller missions in the region. He was due to have preached at a local church on December 5, but did not appear. The authorities were told and investigations disclosed speculation that he had been murdered by guerrillas.
No trace has been found of Father Jeorger.
On December 22, 1976, a young terrorist was captured by security forces in the Nyajena
Tribal Trust Land, which adjoins the Purchase Area in which Father Jeorger had vanished.
During his trial in September, 1977, the terrorist claimed he had overheard a terrorist
leader named Taurai say the priest had been murdered. Documents recovered at the scene of the young terrorist's surrender indicated that Father Jeorger had been abducted by a terrorist gang and tried by a kangaroo court. Despite the fact that the priest was well liked in the area, the documents listed various unsubstantiated "crimes" he was supposed to have committed. These were headed in the documents as "Accounts". A terse note at the end of the "Accounts" stated: "All these accounts and many others make him liable for a death penalty."

Lupane, December, 1976

On December 5, 1976, a guerrilla ambushed and killed the 71 year old former Roman Catholic Bishop of Bulawayo, the Rt Rev. Adolf Schmitt. Also killed in the same incident was a priest, Father Possenti Weggarten, and a nun, Sister Maria Francis van den Berg. The murders took place on a lonely dirt road near Lupane.
First reports of the incident were summed up in a national newspaper next day:
“The only survivor of the ambush was Sister Ermenfried Knauer, who was brought to Bulawayo last night and is recovering at the Mater Dei Hospital.
“She was shot in the left leg as she sought shelter under the bishop's car.”

Dr Johanna Davis, medical superintendent of St. Luke's Mission Hospital, who led the Police to the scene of the murders, and later brought Sister Ermenfried to Bulawayo by ambulance, last night recounted Sister Ermenfried's eyewitness story.
“She said that the bishop's party were driving from their home mission, Regina Mundi, to St. Luke's Mission to visit a sick friend.
“On the road between Gwaai siding and the main Falls road a terrorist held them up and demanded money.”
According to Dr. Davis, Sister Ermenfried said: "We told him we had no money with us, that we were missionaries just out for the afternoon.
"We said, 'If you really need money, come back with us to the mission and we will help you'."
The guerrilla replied that as we had no money he would have to shoot us.
He began gunning us down, starting with the bishop. He riddled him with bullets. Then he mowed down the others."
Sister Ermenfried said she presumed the guerrilla thought she, too, was dead. He fired at her leg which was protruding from under the car.
According to Sister Ermenfried, the guerrilla was wearing a balaclava and camouflage uniform and carrying a machine-gun. Interviewed in hospital the sister recounted the events of the murder. She said the guerrilla twice shouted out the slogan "missionaries are enemies of the people" before he gunned down the missionaries. She said the guerrilla was unable to look his victims in the eye as he was pulling the trigger and it was apparent that he had been taught anti-missionary slogans as part of his training.
The murders coincided with the ill-fated Geneva conference. Sister Ermenfried Knauer, said later that she would be prepared to accept the offer of a Rhodesian farmer to fly her to Geneva - where she could give evidence of the attack to any interested parties. Mother Adelberta Reinhart, the Mother General of the Missionary Sisters of the Precious Blood, said yesterday: "We are not going to enter into politics. They have more to do at Geneva now than talk to Sister Ermenfried. I would not allow her to go."
The farmer said: "I would like to remind the Mother General of my favourite quotation, 'All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing'."  

St Paul's Mission, Musami, February, 1977

During the night of February 7, 1977, seven white Roman Catholic missionaries were murdered by guerrillas. They included four nuns. A newspaper report set out the story as follows:
In what was described as a senseless, insane and brutal act, nationalist guerrillas last night gunned down seven white Roman Catholic missionaries, including four nuns.
Father Dunstan Myerscough, who is aged 65, said today that he had escaped by throwing himself to the ground as the guerrillas opened fire from five yards range. Father Myerscough said he was in no doubt that the killers were nationalist guerrillas.
The Dominican nuns who died were Sister Joseph Wilkinson (58), from Lancashire, and three West Germans - Sister Epiphany Schneider (71) and Sister Ceslaus Stiegler (59), both from Bavaria, and Sister Magdela Lewandowski (42) from Kiel. Sister Anna Victoria Reggel (75) who was suffering from arthritis, fell as a guerrilla tried to push her from her room to the killing ground. She was then ignored.
The male Missionaries killed were Jesuits - Father Christoher Sheperd-Smith (33), a Briton born in East Africa, Father Martin Thomas (45), from London, and lay Brother John Conway (57), from Tralee, Ireland.
A Jesuit spokesman said that Brother John, who had worked for the Church in Rhodesia for 23 years, had virtually built the mission "with his bare hands".
Father Myerscough, who is British, said that when the guerrillas arrived at the mission they began rounding up the white staff. "They appeared to ignore the black staff and sisters," he said.
The group of eight was taken a short distance from the mission block, where the guerrillas then argued in the vernacular as to whom would do the shooting, he said. "Finally, three of them turned on us and raised their guns. When the shooting started the others ran away."
We didn't know they were going to shoot us until the firing started. I threw myself on the ground. When the firing stopped I looked up and saw that the other seven were dead and that there was nothing I could do for them."
Rhodesian forces are hunting the guerrillas, whom the authorities say belong to Mr Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU). A police spokesman said the group was believed responsible for a series of incidents, including the murder of several black civilians.
Police said today they had recovered more than 100 cartridge cases fired from Russian-made rifles and a machine-gun.

Bangala Mission, February or March, 1977

The battered, mutilated body of Father Jose Manuel Rubio Diaz was discovered near a mission station in south-eastern Rhodesia. Father Diaz, who was 58, was born in Spain, and had worked in Rhodesia for 28 years. He had gone missing on 28th February, 1977.

St Paul's Mission, Lupane, March 1977

Drunken guerrillas were responsible for the deaths of two white women missionaries on March 10, 1977 at St Paul’s mission.
The Guardian (London) published this report:
Two white Roman Catholic missionaries, both women, were shot dead by black nationalist guerrillas yesterday at St. Paul's mission in the Lupane district of south-western Rhodesia. A group of eight guerrillas entered the mission, in remote bush country, threatening the black staff and nurses. They demanded money from Dr Johanna Maria Decker (59) from Munich and Sister Ann Ploner (53) from Austria who were in the dispensary. Dr Decker had been in Rhodesia for 28 years, and Sister Ploner, born in Austria, but a South African national, volunteered for missionary work in Rhodesia six months ago.
Dr Decker gave them the contents of the cash box but they said it was not enough. She said she had more at her house and was apparently shot down on her way to collect it. Mission staff said about R$400 had been taken during the attack, in which the insurgents assaulted the black mission staff, threatened the nurses with rape, and ordered the 130 patients from their beds.
Another nun, Sister Damiane Drechsler (43) escaped death by hiding. She said she was sewing when the guerrillas arrived and she saw Dr Decker pass her window at gunpoint. A few seconds later she heard the rattle of automatic weapons, followed soon afterwards by another burst in which Sister Ploner died, her body being riddled with eight shots.
Rhodesian forces are hunting the insurgents, who are believed to have mounted Saturday's attack against the nearby Regina Mundi mission in which an Austrian-born building contractor, Mr. Rudi Kogler, was killed after he had shot dead an insurgent leader.
According to St. Paul's mission staff, the guerrillas spent several hours at a nearby beer-hall before entering the mission, which is surrounded by a security fence.
Sister Damiane Drechsler, 43, from Heidelberg, who has been six years at the mission and came to Rhodesia in 1959, told visiting correspondents the sequence of events. She said that while she had been sewing she saw two of the guerrillas leading Dr Decker at gunpoint just outside the window of her room.
Shortly afterwards she heard a "shattering" noise which she realized later was the shot which killed the doctor at a tree where she had been taken. Shortly afterwards, a further 200 yards away, there was a burst of shooting and Sister Ploner had been murdered with eight bullets. The two were among five whites at the mission.

Forty of the women patients were in the maternity wards and among those who fled included women in labour who had their babies in the bush within hours.

Gokwe ambush, October, 1977

On October, 23, 1977, the Reverend Andries Louw Brand (40) and his wife Tabina Metje Brand (41) were killed in a terrorist ambush. They were murdered while returning to their home in Que Que, after celebrating communion in the Gokwe area. Mr Brand belonged to the clergy of the Dutch Reformed Church.
They left six children.

Abduction near Salisbury, January, 1978

Father Desmond Paul Donovan (50), Jesuit. Abducted on 15th January, 1978. The motor cycle that he was riding was found buried, but no trace of Father Desmond has been discovered.

Embakwe Mission School, June 1978

Two Catholic Brothers, German-born Pieter Geyermann (36) and Swiss-born Andrew von
Arx (45) were killed by gunfire at the Embakwe mission school, close to the Botswana border, on the night of June 2, 1978.
Father Angelmar Dylong of the mission was wounded in the assault and said "It was definitely a terrorist attack."
The attack had the effect of closing the school, which had served 250 students.

Salvation Army Usher Institute, June 1978

Five days later, on June 7, 1978, terrorists raided the Salvation Army Usher Institute.
The Daily Telegraph reported:
Two British women mission teachers were shot dead and two other missionaries wounded in a cold-blooded raid by Rhodesian guerrillas on a Salvation Army institute near Figtree, south-west of Bulawayo.
The two women who died were Miss Charon Faith Swindells, 25, from Bangor, Co. Down, and Miss Diane Barbara Thompson, 28, from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, whose parents live in Goldhawk Road, Shepherd's Bush.
They were killed instantly when a 15-strong gang of guerrillas, members of Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army opened fire indiscriminately on a group of missionaries. Injured in the shooting were Miss Gunvor Berit Polsson, 37, from Malmo, Sweden, and Mr David Cotton, 38, from Atherstone, Warwickshire, whose family lives at Hadleigh, Essex.
The guerrillas arrived at the Salvation Army's Usher Institute, a sprawling mission, on Wednesday night.
Col. Ken Ramsey of the Salvation Army said the guerrillas sought out mission staff house by house and started to march six of them towards the house of the principal, Maj. Jean Caldwell, a Londoner.
"They never got to the principal's house. The guerrillas must have been disturbed by something for they suddenly started to scatter into the bush". Col. Ramsay said.
"Before they did so, they opened fire indiscriminately and hit four of the captives."
Col. Ramsay said Mr Cotton had been shot in the legs and Miss Polsson, the school vice-principal, was shot in the back. Their condition last night was said to be satisfactory.
The Usher Institute is close to the border with Botswana and 30 miles from the Roman Catholic Embakwe mission where two priests, one from West Germany, the other from Switzerland, were shot dead by guerrillas during the previous week.
According to police, the weapons used in the latest mission killings were assault rifles of the type supplied to Joshua Nkomo's army by the Soviet Union.

Sanyati Mission, June 1978

On June 15, at Sanyati Mission, terrorists murdered a Southern Baptist evangelist - Mr.
Archie G. Dunaway (58).
Mr Dunaway was married, with four children, and came from the United States of

Emmanuel Mission School, June 1978

12 missionaries from the Elim Pentecostal Church were bayoneted, killed with an axe or beaten with wood on the night of 23rd June, 1978. No shots were fired. There were two nurses that were killed in this group.
Mary Fisher, the thirteenth, escaped into the bushes but had been critically wounded and became unconscious. She died in intensive care on 30th June so was buried after the main group.
Those who died are: Mr Peter McCann (30) teacher, his wife Sandra (30) both from Huddersfield, son Phillip (6) and daughter Joy (5); The Rev. Phillip Evans (29), his wife Sussane (35) and their daughter Rebecca (4); Mr Roy Lynn (37) from Northern Ireland, his wife Joyce née Pickering (36) nurse and their baby daughter Pamela Grace (almost three weeks old); Catherine Picken (55) originally from Southend but had been in the Congo until the riots after Independence; Elizabeth Wendy Hamilton-White (37) experienced nurse, teacher and social worker but worked at Elim as a nurse and Miss Mary Fisher (28) from South Wales with post-graduate Certificate of Education and Diploma in Theology.

The Sunday Mail published this account which was written by Terry Blocksidge.
WARNING, contains graphic content:
Body of Pamela Joyce with three month old baby killed at Elim Mission on 23 June 1978Eight British missionaries and four young children - including a three-week-old baby - were bayoneted to death by terrorists on Rhodesia's Eastern border on Friday night in the worst massacre of whites since the six-year-old war began. Three of the missionaries were men and the others women. A sixth woman was stabbed and beaten and left for dead. She staggered 300 m into the freezing Vumba bush to spend the night before being found semi-conscious by security forces yesterday. Despite intensive care in a Salisbury hospital she subsequently died. The gruesome murders, by a group of eight to 10 terrorists, happened at Emmanuel Mission School - 15 km south-east of Umtali and 8 km from the Mozambique border - once used as the Eagle boarding school. The dead belonged to the Elim Pentecostal Church.
Most of the women had been sexually assaulted, and one mutilated. The children had been dragged from their beds. Two children were in yellow pyjamas, one with a red dressing Body of Pamela Joyce with three month old baby killed at Elim Mission on 23 June 1978gown, and a third in a flowery nightdress. Mr. Brian Chapman, director of the Church in Rhodesia and South Africa, visited the scene yesterday. He said: "We saw no humanity here." The massacre began shortly before 8.30 p.m. when the white families were forced by the terrorists from their homes and classrooms, and marched to a playing field. Near the sports pavilion, about 400 m from the main school, they were split into groups, then beaten with lengths of wood and logs, and stabbed. A mother, beaten to death, lay with her young baby. The baby had also been savagely beaten. The mother had a hand squeezed tightly around her engagement ring, turned into her palm, as she reached for her baby in her dying moments. Nearby, another woman had died from an axe-wound - the weapon still protruded from her shoulder - and two men, one with his hands tied behind his back, lay beaten and slashed to death. A blood-soaked chunk of wood had been dropped near to them. Three children lay in a pitiful huddle, with two women's bodies next to them.

The history of the Elim Mission is inspiring yet extremely tragic. It goes back to Katerere in Inyanga North in 1946. 1950s. The mission had been started by Dr Cecil Brien (surgeon and pharmacist) and his wife Mary (physician and anaesthetist). By 1971, apart from the hospital, it ran a school, a church, and numerous chapels in the outlying bush. The barren wilderness was selected as it reached into Mozambique so it complemented the site at Penhalonga that was previously established. Katerere was in the lowveld, unlike the Earstern Highlands so was terribly hot, barren and fever ridden.
A young teacher Peter Griffiths left Swansea in 1960 to come to Katerere in 'Inyanga' as it was called. After settling in he married Brenda Hurrel and headed education. The site at Penhalonga also saw impressive expansion for education, medicine and the Gospel.
Joyce Lynn, a trained nurse from Yorkshire, England was the Matron of the Hospital at Katerere. The Rhodesian Bush War had been going on for some time before the threat of the Patriotic Front became a reality to the people at Elim. The first contact came one night in April 1976, when guerrillas approached the mission hospital and demanded medicine and food. A nursing sister, Joy Bath, was disturbed by the barking of her dog and, looking outside, she saw the figure of the matron, Mrs Lynn, being escorted from her house by a group. Both nurses were then taken to the hospital where they had to give medications.

The decision was made in 1977 by the Elim authorities to move the mission. Pious Munembe, a local, was promoted to run the school and Evelyn his wife and trained nurse took over running the hospital.

180 children departed from Elim Mission Secondary school in three buses leaving to what had been Eagle School which had closed at the end of 1976, 20 km from Umtali. The first bus hit a landmine about 45 km north of Inyanga. The second bus stopped and took on board the injured children and carried on. The third bus hit a second landmine farther down the road and burst into flames. All the children escaped through the windows but the driver was burned to death. Bedding and luggage were destroyed. Two boys died as a result of the first explosion, another was brought to Umtali hospital where his leg was amputated, and others were treated at Inyanga hospital.
A truck bringing school equipment from the Mission hit a landmine and a relief truck overturned when trying to bring the baggage to safety, destroying much of the equipment.
Many of the pupils returned to their homes after being accommodated at other missions in the Inyanga area. Twelve pupils volunteered to help get Eagle school ready for the mission to continue schooling next term.
Mr Peter Griffiths completed the move and headed the new school. The tranquility of the Vumba was so brutally disturbed in the middle of the following year. In Inyanga they were well known after 30 years in the district, but in the Vumba they were unknown.

In the early 1980s, there were rumours that a number of those involved in the massacre had had remarkable conversions and Peter Griffiths was instructed to investigate the claims. He met the ZANLA platoon commander who had led the group who gave him his reasons for the atrocity. He said that:
(1) he wanted to undermine white morale in the country;
(2) he sought to close down institutions in the area to facilitate more effective routes for guerrilla infiltration and
(3) the missionaries had not responded immediately to instructions to leave the site.


In the aftermath,the question was asked by Elim Mission if these deaths represented a waste. Events and information that flowed into the central office shortly afterwards assured the Church's leaders that it wasn't. There were testimonies of changed lives, new dedications, appreciation for ministry faithfully given and commitments to service. Elim Mission made the decision to continue their work in Zimbabwe: "The seed that fell into the ground died, but it brought forth a harvest for the glory of God".
A church building was purchased in Umtali and it was designated the 'Memorial Church'. This is now the central church for the region and provides facilities for the Headquarters of the Zimbabwe Elim Church.
Ephraim Satuku took the lead spiritually at Inyanga and David Tsvamuno became the pastor in the Penhalonga/Umtali area. The Primary school work continued with Pious Munembe involved, as his wife, Evelyn, continued to oversee the work of the hospital.
Emmanuel Secondary school at Inyanga was reopened in 1981.
Expatriate British were sent out again from the UK to support local staff and the legacy continues.

Reports in Rhodesia suggest that two groups of ZANLA combined to number one gang of 21. Army units were deployed from Umtali early on the morning of 24th June but without any success.

On 11th August 1978 the media were invited to the base at Grand Reef (near Umtali) and shown the bodies of two ZANLA terrorists killed by security forces. The two included one named Luke Madjuimbo who had kept a diary.

He had written that two ZANLA sections had combined for the massacre and the two section leaders were named.
“Friday 23 June is the day near Matondo camp in Zimunya district. Time of operation: 6.30 to 9 pm… Total number of comrades who were there, 21. We killed 12 whites including four babies, as rememberance of Nyadzonia, Chimoio, Tembwe and in Zimbabwean massacres... ”
At the inquest held on 21 August 1978 it was revealed through ballistic tests conducted on the weapons captured with the two dead terrorists that the gang responsible for the massacre had also ambushed a car in the Burma Valley on 21st July 1978, and 11 days later on 1st August had attacked a Roads Department camp. These are the only two from the gang that were known to have been killed.

At Entumbane military camp in Bulawayo shortly after Independence, eight of the gang responsible for the atrocity had experienced a vision. They had seen the Cross and been shown the Hand of God coming against them in judgment. Seven of them managed to get passports, left Zimbabwe and enrolled in Bible Schools. The eighth member, who had the Chimurenga name of “War Devil” or alternatively “Devil Hondo”, joined a Bible School in Harare. Peter Griffiths interviewed him and kept in close and regular contact with him thereafter. This particular gang member had left school aged 14 years to join ZANLA and was supposedly their youngest section commander when the war ended.

There had been dialogue between Elim Mission and ZANLA in UK about closing the Vumba mission. It was decided in Zimbabwe that the white staff would start commuting from Umtali from the Sunday but ZANLA had become impatient and the massacre took place on the Friday.

St Rupert's Mission, Hartley, June 1978

The murder of two more Roman Catholic missionaries was described in the Rhodesian national press:
“Two German-born missionaries. Father Gregor Richert (48) and Brother Bernhard Lisson (68), who between them had served in Rhodesia for nearly 60 years, were shot near their quarters at St Rupert's Mission, 60 km north-west of Hartley, on the afternoon of June 27, 1978.”
Reporting the murders in more detail, a communique from Combined Operations Headquarters said last night a sum of money was taken by the terrorists when they left in the late afternoon, and shots were fired into a mission vehicle.
Three armed ZIPRA terrorists entered the mission and demanded to see the priest in charge. Father Richert was seen by them and went with the terrorists to Brother Lisson's quarters," the communique said.
Both the victims were then forced to return to Father Richert's house, which they entered together with the terrorists. Their servant was told to leave.
Shortly afterwards a single shot was heard, then three shots followed by a burst of automatic fire.
The regional supervisor of the German Jesuits in the Sinoia area, Father Ulbrich, said in Sinoia that there was no apparent reason for the killings.
Father Ulbrich travelled to Sinoia from Salisbury yesterday to inquire into the deaths of his two colleagues. He said the two men were "extremely dedicated" to their work in the small, isolated mission and hospital complex not far from Sanyati, where they had made their homes for more than five years.
He said although terrorists were known to have an active presence in the area, he could think of no reason why St. Rupert's Mission had been singled out. "It's like so many other cases," he said. "It just seems to be indiscriminate."

Survivors from ambush, Cashel, November 1978

Missionaries Jim and Georgia Dearmore worked for 8 years in Rhodesia. During the last 6 they were working under daily terrorist danger. On 28th November 1978, after many escapes from mines, Jim was ambushed and nearly killed by 40 or 50 terrorists in a "double ambush." God performed many miracles to save him. Badly wounded, he spent 6 weeks in hospital and 3 months Physical Therapy to restore near normal use of left shoulder, arm, and hand. Picture shows Jim sitting in hospital smiling a few days after ambush.

Read an account of the incident by clicking here.

John Bradburne, Mtoko, September 1979

John Bradburne Memorial Society in honour after shooting by ZANLA forces in 1979 after abduction after living in rural community for eleven yearsJohn was a martyr from the Rhodesian Bush War who was killed by ZANLA outside Mtoko and Mrewa on Wednesday 5th September 1979. He was a lay member of the Order of St Francis and had been former warden at the Mutemwa Leprosy and Care Centre and was providing care to recovering leprosy patients, physically handicapped and destitute people in the community.
John Bradburne was a well-educated, upper middle-class Englishman, who was commissioned with the Gurkhas in the Second World War but recurrent malaria ended his service in Burma with a mortar platoon. He was religious and, in the late 1940s, became a Roman Catholic. Heather Benoy and John Bradburne playing music
He wandered the world doing odd jobs – teaching, caretaking, forestry – but never settled to anything and was very musical. There were plenty of missions where he would be welcome doing odd-jobs.
He had come to Rhodesia looking for the solitude of a cave, but while he was accompanying the priests as they went to offer monthly Masses at their out-stations, he saw that they were surrounded by the people. He felt his heart going out to these people, and was saddened by their obvious poverty. He yearned to become like them in their poverty, unnoticed. Up until then he had tried to be a lay missionary helper - a ‘go here, go there’ assistant. This was also a challenge to John, who realised that he was not very practical, but practical skills were certainly what were needed when assisting on the missions.
In January 1964 he was invited to become caretaker to an old house and church in the Mazoe valley, 45 km north of Salisbury (now Harare). They were owned by an English couple, Lord and Lady Acton, who had donated them to the Jesuits. The Jesuits had earmarked the buildings to form a new novitiate for those who were preparing for the priesthood, and wanted a caretaker in the interim. John Bradburne in Rhodesia
John came across the leper colony in 1969 at Mutemwa, nearly 150 km east of Salisbury. It had been founded in 1937. The drug dapsone cured the leprosy bacteriium so the clinic had been closed down in 1962. Patients that had not been treated with dapsone were very deformed with loss of limbs, noses, and even blind so those without families to return to had remained in the colony. The 80 or so residents at that time were alledgedly neglected, dirty and hungry. John Bradburne lived among them. He was not medically trained but he was helped by Dr Luisa Guidotti and a nurse Sister Caterina Savini at All Souls Mission. A chapel was constructed. Archbishop Patrick Chakaipa, the archbishop of Salisbury, installed him as a Communion giver, thus enabling him to give the daily Eucharist to the residents. This went hand in hand with his commitment to going for the sacrament of confession each month as a lay member of the Third Order of St Francis. He also taught them music. Site where martyr John Bradburne was shot by Mugabe ZANLA forces at Mtoko in September 1979
His single-minded loving care turned out to be in defiance of the committee so eventually he was sacked and told to leave.
He lived in a tent then was gifted a tin hut in the district. Bradburne continued to help as much as he could.
In 1978 John was admitted to St Anne’s hospital where he was diagnosed with Guillain Barre Syndrome. After a week in ICU at the Andrew Fleming Hospital he was discharged to St Annes then back to Mtoko.
During the Bush War, local auxiliaries known as Mujibhas were the “eyes and ears” of the nationalist terrorists. John had upset them with his condemnations of injuries inflicted on his people of Mutemwa as they were easy prey for theft.
The Mujibhas accused John of being a spy for the security forces. A group of them, armed with sticks and hoes, abducted him at night on Sunday, September 2, 1979 and marched him off to an outpost of the Nationalist terrorists. John Bradburne with lepee
John was put on trial. The trial went on for two days with trumped up charges, and during the night he was imprisoned in a cave. The commander had heard of John and told the Mujibhas that he had no argument with this white man who had helped black people. When the trial came to an end the villagers were asked to pronounce their verdict, but instead of the expected guilty verdict they all broke down in tears.
The commander wanted to free John, but he realised that if he pronounced him innocent he would be killed before he could get back to Mutemwa. He devised a plan and told John that he was intending to declare him innocent, but was going to protect him by having him escorted to nearby Mozambique, where he could work in a refugee camp.
John knew that if he accepted to go to Mozambique he would be safe, and if he refused he would be killed. He was prepared to die for his beloved people of Mutemwa and so he refused, asking to be allowed to go back to the leprosy settlement.
He was alledgedly released early in the morning of 5th September 1979. John was followed by Mujibhas and two nationalist terrorists as he began the walk back to Mutemwa. As they crossed the main road that led back to Mutemwa, John was forced at gunpoint to go down to the entrance of a storm drain that was at the side of the road. He asked permission to be given time to say a few prayers. He knelt down, and after saying his prayers the terrorist pointed his AK 47 machine gun at John, emptying the magazine of bullets into his back. Without making a murmur John dropped to the ground, silent, with 24 bullets in his back.

A former policeman at Mtoko at that time recently posted on social media: “We used to see John once a month when he walked from the Colony into town.
He looked just like Jesus in his robe and sandals.
I didn’t attend the scene when he was murdered, but our strong belief was that the ‘terrs’ tried to take him back to Mozambique. He was about 20km from the leper colony next to the Mtoko-Nyamapanda Road. Shrine for John Bradburne shot by Mugabe's ZANLA forces during Rhodesian Bush War while helping lepers and locals in the rural community at Mutemwa in 1979
“I wish I had spoken to him, but it always seemed that he wanted to be left alone.”

Many pilgrims come to his shrine at Mutemwa, and some claim to have been healed by his intercession. A recent miracle in Scotland has been attributed to his aid. He is a candidate for canonization, but he has not yet received the official title of “Servant of God”, from the Vatican. The Episcopal Conference of Zimbabwe unanimously gave its support for the beginning of the Cause of Canonisation of John Bradburne.


Missionaries killed after Independence

Umzingwane, November 1987

Missionaries were targetted by dissidents with 16 deaths documented at Umzingwane on two farms early on 26th November, 1987. All victims had been hacked to death.
Those killed at the Olive Tree Farm were Jerry Keightley (40), and his wife Marian Keightley (39), their daughters Gay Deborah (16) and Glynis (14), and their 18-month-old son, Barnabas. Another Zimbabwean, Penelope Sarah Lovett (28), and two Americans, David Emerson (35), of Osakis, Minn., and Karen Sharon Iversdahl (32), who was reported to be from Montana, were also killed.
Those killed at the New Adam Farm were David Marais (35), a South African; his wife, Katherine Marais (34), and their son, Ethan (4). Also killed were Robert Hill (38), and his wife, Gaynor (27), and their 6-week-old-old son, Benjamin; Hazel Russell (46), and Jean Campbell, a Briton. Laura Russell (13) escaped.


Doctors, Nurses and International Red Cross

Sister Joseph Wilkenson, 6th February 1977

A Dominican nun, Sister Joseph Wilkenson, was working in the mission hospital at St Paul’s during the Rhodesian Bush War. She was an English trained nurse and midwife from Lancashire, England and since leaving England in 1937 she had given nursing and midwifery care in Rhodesia for 37 years. Sister Joseph cycled to the hospital everyday from the convent as she was determined that war would not stop her from carrying out the work she loved. The

Dominican nuns at the mission station believed that there was "no cause to fear that anyone would want to harm five women, who between them had given 185 years of unselfconscious service to the Black people of Africa”.

On the evening of 6 February 1977, the Head of St Paul’s Community, Father Dunstan Myerscough, was confronted by a young ZANLA terrorist with an AK-47 rifle and was taken to the dining room where other missionaries had been rounded up. Sister Joseph, still in her white hospital uniform, stood among the frightened and confused group. Father Myerscough, the only person who survived the attack, said that the priests were told to remove their trousers. Without warning, three CTs suddenly broke away from the group and, kneeling down, raised their guns and fired. When the wounded Father Myerscough regained consciousness he found the blood covered bodies of his fellow missionaries on the ground next to him. The following day the army and police found one hundred and eleven spent cartridges from RDP machine guns and AK-47 rifles on the ground. A month later, in a subsequent attack, a note book which described the attack on St Paul’s was found on the body of one of those involved. The last lines recorded read "We shot four Europeans who were Priests. Sisters were five and altogether there were nine, eight dead. No comrades were injured in action".

Nurses Joyce Lynn née Pickering and Wendy White, 23rd June 1977

These two nurses were members of the Elim Pentocostal Church that had run a hundred-bed hospital at Katerere in Inyanga North.
During 1977 the Elim Mission Secondary school moved to take over Eagle school in Vumba that had closed at the end of the previous year.

It was on Friday night, 23 June 1978, that the white staff were targetted. Matron Lynn and a nursing colleague, Wendy White, were among the group of nine adults and four children who were massacred. Wendy White, a nurse, teacher and qualified social worker, had not been long with the mission when she was killed. The two nurses and other adults, along with the children, were taken into the bush and slain. Ian McGarrick, a Pentocostal missionary who was sleeping in his quarters at the school, discovered the mutilated bodies early the next morning. Matron Lynn, her face battered beyond recognition, lay with her left hand touching the battered head of her three-week old baby, Pamela.
Not a shot had been fired so it was only the following morning that Ian McGarrick stumbled upon the scene. A few feet away from the other missionaries, were the corpses of the single women, including that of Nurse Wendy White who was barely alive.

The Rhodesian army was tracking the perpetrators, although they had a ten hour start and evaded capture. Only two out of the gang of 21 were killed during an engagement during the following month.

International Committee of the Red Cross, Eastern Districts, May 1978

The Red Cross vehicle was ambushed in the Eastern Highlands on 19th May, 1978. The IRC delegates, Mr Andre Tieche and Mr Alain Bieri, both Swiss and in their 30's were shot in the head. Mr Charles Chatora, an interpreter, had been shot in his back in the kneeling position.

The following account was published by Van der Spuys Rhodesia Information Centre, P.O. Box 138. Crows Nest, N.S.W. 2065 and produced by C.A. & Associates, Box 146, P.O. Roseville, N.S.W. 2069:
"The International Committee of the Red Cross is an organization respected and admired the world over for its humanitarian work. Its emblem - a red cross emblazoned on a white background - is internationally recognized as a badge of neutrality, affording its delegates free and safe access to any war zone in their mission of mercy.
But this means little to a Rhodesian terrorist. No rules of war to adhere to. No Geneva convention to uphold. Hit and run tactics are the order of the day. Go for the "soft" targets. Intimidate and subvert the bewildered tribal people. Destroy their property, murder, rape and maim. Rob buses, stores and clinics. Kill the "white settler" in isolated farmsteads. Go for the defenceless, aged and weak. Follow the communist doctrine and undermine the system.
And so it happened that when a conspicuous white vehicle with red cross emblems prominently displayed on the front, sides and rear, came bumping down a rough mountain track in the remote eastern highlands of Rhodesia recently, yet another "soft" target had presented itself to the hidden gang of terrorists.
As the first burst of automatic fire slashed across the windscreen and rifle grenades smashed into the front and side of the vehicle, there was no return fire from the three occupants.
None was expected. Red Cross workers never carry arms, even for their own defence, as a matter of principle. The two ICRC delegates in the vehicle, Mr. Andre Tieche and Mr. Alain Bieri - both in their early 30s and both from Switzerland - and their African translator, Mr. Charles Chatora, had no chance of escaping the murderous fire. They were quickly cut down by the hail of bullets and shrapnel, their bodies scattered like rag dolls in and around the vehicle.
It appeared as if Mr. Bieri died at once. His body, face down, was lying next to the open door of the Land-cruiser. He had been shot in the head and elsewhere. He had been in Rhodesia for little over a week.
Mr. Tieche lay on his back - also shot in the head - on the other side of the vehicle. From the blood spoor in the grass it was possible he had been dragged into the ditch. He had been head of the Red Cross office in Umtali.
Mr. Chatora's body was found in a kneeling position, half in and half out of the driving compartment. Security Forces on the scene said it was possible he had been executed, as he had been shot in the back.
Jubilant at the case with which they had eliminated their victims, the terrorists moved in to complete their despicable work robbing the bodies of valuables watches, money, even shoes. Their pockets had been pulled inside out. Nothing was missed.
When Mr Francois Peraz, Chief delegate of the ICRC in Rhodesia, arrived on the scene some hours later, he was aghast at the scene of slaughter. "It's awful, it's pure murder," he said after inspecting the bodies of his colleagues
Questioned by journalists at the time, he said that all parties to the Rhodesian war, the Government and the Patriotic Front of Mr. Nkomo and Mr. Mugabe, had been informed that the Red Cross was working in Rhodesia.
Assurances that the Red Cross staff's neutrality would be respected in the operational areas had been given by all, he said. Mr Peraz said that despite the tragedy, his delegates would still not carry weapons . "To do so would be to deny our own principles". He said the murdered delegates were returning from a nearby clinic after assessing the medical needs of the local people. In the back of the truck was a bale of blankets for distribution to clinics and needy people.
"Our help is for the population, with no discrimination," he said. Back in Geneva, the Red Cross Board called for "the fullest details of the incident" in which the three Red Cross workers were murdered and to "take immediately, all measures for ensuring the absolute observance of the sign of the Red Cross." But perhaps the most significant aspect of the report is the suggestion that "this vile and cowardly act was possibly deliberately aimed at crippling the humanitarian mission of the Red Cross" in Rhodesia.

Nurse Francina M. du Toit, 23rd July, 1978.

Mrs Francina du Toit lived on Amatula Farm, Gutu, and was a nursing sister in the clinic in the village nearby. She was gunned down and killed in an ambush on her way to work.

Nurse Jennifer Hebe Boyd, 22nd September, 1978.

Jenny, or Jen to her family, was born in 1945 to Alan and Ada Boyd, and was raised and Meomial plaque to nurse Jennifer Boyd nurse shot by ZANLA forces while on duty in Rhodesia in 1978educated in Gippsland near Stratford, Victoria, in Australia. Her parents were sheep and cattle farmers. Alan, her father was President of the Avon Shire Council in 1978. Jenny had a sister Elizabeth, and three brothers John, Alan and Colin.
After schooling she trained as a nurse at the Mercy Hospital for Women and at the (Royal) Women’s Hospital in Melbourne. Qualifying as a specialist nurse Jenny worked in Alice Springs, Australia, and then travelled for some time through Europe.
She arrived in Rhodesia in 1971/2 and accepted a post as a community health nurse in 1974 from the Ministry of Health working in the rural areas of Mashonaland. She visited isolated outposts and as the war progressed and the risks increased she accepted armed guards, despite her misgvings. She purchased a a pistol for protection during her last visit to her family in February 1978.
Jenny had only just got engaged to be married to an American lecturer based in Salisbury and after their planned marriage on 28 November 1978 they were intent on emigrating to West Virginia in the USA.
Tragedy struck two months earlier while Jenny and her four armed escorts were travelling in a mine-proofed landrover to an outlying clinic in the Mrewa TTL when the vehicle hit a landmine. Escaping relatively unharmed from the blast they were cut down in a hail of fire from a ZANLA gang lying in ambush at the site. The District Security Assistants from Internal Affairs that died instantly with Jenny in this targetted attack were Clemence Chipanera, Chawawona Hukuimwe, Tambudzayi Mushani and Samukute Tazviziva.
Sister Boyd (aged 33) was posthumously awarded the Order of the Legion of Merit (Civil) in May 1979, the award given to her parents at the Mercy Hospital in a brief but emotional ceremony. Her name was also placed in the Nurses’ Bay of the Anglican Cathedral in Salisbury.
“She loved Rhodesia and its people and felt she was helping” said her brother Colin.
“She was very brave and had great faith. She had a lot of friends and no fear for her own safety,” said her mother Ada.
Mr. Alan Boyd, her father, wrote in a letter to the Gippsland Times, December 21st, 1978: "My late daughter Jenny who in her vocation of caring for the underprivileged of all creeds and colours in Rhodesia always told us never to give any money or donations to the World Council of Churches as it is being used to support the terrorists to murder and plunder." Mr Boyd concluded his letter by quoting from one of the hundreds of letters he received at the time of his daughter's death - it was from a doctor who had made two trips to Rhodesia during those terrible times: "They (the Rhodesians) are fighting the whole world on the question of whether armed communism will be allowed to overrun Rhodesia. If this should happen it will be due to the blindness and or lack of courage of politicians in England, in America and here in Australia."

Missionary doctors in the conflict

Two missionary medicos - Marvin and Carolyn Piburn - were innocently caught in a clash between Nationalist insurgents and the Government. They are Methodist missionaries from Iowa, USA that came to the rural village of Nyadiri, a rural village 23 kilometers west of Mtoko. Mtoko is the regional centre that is 142 km northeast of Salisbury on the road to Mozambique.

Nyadira Mission Hospital started as a ramshackle clinic in the late 1940's. The mission had grown into a complex of brick buildings, including an orphanage, a primary school, colleges for teachers and nurses and a 200‐bed hospital which served 200,000 people.
The Americans arrived in 1953.

The area surrounding Nyadiri Mission became heavily infiltrated by ZANLA during the 1970s. Dr Piburn was the only physician and Mrs Piburn the only anaesthetist. ‘Contacts’ between ZANLA and Rhodesian forces were frequent. The roads were planted with land mines, and the buses that used to carry patients to the mission's hospital no longer ran. As a result, the hospital became half empty. In February 1979, after a rash of guerrilla attacks on missionaries, the United Methodist Church ordered its entire staff members in Rhodesia to live in Salisbury.

In the most recent incident against the church, guerrillas abducted about 50 people from the nearby Marymount Roman Catholic mission, including 10 nuns and a dozen nurses, and took them to Mozambique. The abductions particularly disturbed the Piburns because the Marymount missionaries, like them, believed they maintained correct relations with the guerrillas. Although the Marymount people were released recently, Dr. Piburn remains troubled by the “illogic” of the incident.

“So far,” he said, “we've had pretty good relations with terrorist groups. But it could go sour any minute.” His notion of “pretty good relations” accommodates several nasty incidents. Two years ago, while the Piburns were away, guerrillas came to Nyadiri, threatened another doctor who was serving here then and assaulted the mission's pastor. Last November a guerrilla threatened Dr Piburn with a bayonet. In April, when Government forces occupied the mission to provide security for patients and workers who wanted to vote in the general election, guerrillas pounded it with mortars. Through good luck and poor aim, no one was hurt.

Since then, the Piburns were commuting each day in small planes flown by two missionary pilots. But by September the pilots said that the trip was too dangerous. Since driving was out of the question because of ambushes and mines, the Piburns have no alternative but to leave.

Dr Luisa Guidotti, Mtoko, July 1979.

A few months previously, the Piburns’ closest friend, also a medical missionary, was shot at a military check point and died.

On the morning of the 6th July 1979 a convoy from 1 Battalion, Guard Force, travelling from Mudzi to Mtoko saw a body lying in the middle of the Main road in the vicinity of the turn-off to the All Souls Mission. His hands were tied and a note pinned to his body that stated that he was a traitor who had served with Guard Force. The young Guard Force Officer in charge of the convoy deployed his soldiers in “all round defence”. Clearance patrols swept the area and other soldiers set up two vehicle check points on both ends of the business centre to stop and search vehicles. Groups of mujibhas were seen moving in the area close by which was an indication that insurgents were not far away. In due course the soldiers were engaged in two fleeting firefights with mujibhas and insurgents.

In the meantime, a truck that was approaching from the direction of Mtoko was stopped at the vehicle checkpoint and was being searched. Another vehicle, a Land Rover ambulance, with markings that were obscured by roll bars, approached from the same direction and was signalled to stop. It stopped, but shortly thereafter started to drive off again and turned down the All Souls road. The Guard Force Officer in charge, stated that the first indication that the vehicle had moved off without authority was when he heard the soldiers shouting “Stop, stop!” He ran to observe the situation and saw that the vehicle was accelerating away. He then ordered the soldiers closest to the vehicle to open fire. Three shots were fired. When the break lights of the vehicle came on the order was given to “cease fire “.

The vehicle had come to a stand-still. The passenger in the vehicle was Dr Luisa Guidotti, a Missionary Doctor who was working at All Souls Mission. She was shot in the leg and bleeding. The Guard Force officer had trained as a paramedic and provided first aid. Then she was transported by road to the Mtoko Hospital. She died before reaching the hospital. It was a tragic event. Dr Guidotti was an Italian national from Parma and the Guard Force officer was of Italian ancestry. He explained “I had not met Dr Guidotti before... We were in transit at the time and outside of our area of operations.” As Dr Guidotti had arrived from Italy 13 years previously and lived in that operational area for some time, one can assume that she must have encountered many military and police vehicle check points / roadblocks.

Dr Guidotti, like some other missionaries, was known for the medical support she provided to the insurgents. She claimed it was for humanitarian reasons and following the Geneva Convention.

John Dove, a fellow missionary and close friend of Dr Guidotti, wrote in his book titled ‘Luisa’: “Luisa’s relationship with the guerrillas was excellent although she was always wary of new groups. Would they know about her? Before the time of the keep they visited her regularly at night time bristling with arms and clenched fist salutes. She made them feel at home. They relaxed and told her of their ailments. Now, during the period of the keep they could not reach her. They sent messages with young girls and requests for this or that medicine. Luisa always judged according to the medical need."

The question has been asked if the Guard Force soldiers killed Dr Guidotti because she was providing medical supplies to the insurgents. There may always be speculation but a vehicle driving away from a vehicle checkpoint without being given the go-ahead in an area infested with insurgents and mujibhas would be considered to be very suspicious. The discovery of the body of a murdered African person with the note on his body, two fleeting contacts with mujibhas and insurgents, and the presence of two vehicles at the check point at the same could have contributed to a tense situation in a hostile area. On another day there may have been a different outcome.


Christianity Today, 1978. Missionaries and Other Christians Are Dying in Rhodesia. 21st July 1978. www.christianitytoday.com


John Bradburne Memorial Society

Ministry of Information, July 1978. 'The Murder of Missionaries in Rhodesia'.

Pera, S.A. 'They gave their lives - A tribute to the known and unknown nurse martyrs of our time - Part 1'

Schobesberger, Horst, 2014. The dilemma Guard Force soldiers faced when deployed on operations. Guard Force/Types of operation/Infantry/1st Battalion.

Smith, Peter, 2006. Global warming. The fire of Pentocast in World Evangelism. An anecdotal history of Elim Missions (1919-1989).

Teaching-Africa.com. Mutemwa Leprosy Settlement.

Tess Keeney communication

Thornycraft, Peta and James Rothwell, 2017. Callaghan government accused of ignoring evidence Mugabe behind 1978 slaughter of British missionaries. Johannesburg, 20 May 2017, 7:03pm.

Winfrey, Carey, 1979. 2 US. Missionaries, Caught in Crossfire, to Leave Rhodesia. Special to The New York Times, Sept 19, 1979

Communications and media.

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